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A group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and also simultaneously to a surface.  All these cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The EPS are typically polymeric in nature and consists of extracellular DNA, proteins and polysachharides. EPSs are the construction material of bacterial settlements and either remains attached to the cell’s outer surface, or are secreted into its growth medium. These compounds are important in biofilm formation and cells attachment to surfaces. EPSs constitute 50% to 90% of a biofilm’s total organic matter. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as “cities for microbes.”

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